Reality check electron concept

For a reality check, the description of an electron as in Wikipedia is the reference.


The electron (symbol: e−) is a subatomic particle with a negative elementary electric charge. Electrons belong to the first generation of the lepton particle family, and are generally thought to be elementary particles because they have no known components or substructure. The electron has a mass that is approximately 1/1836 that of the protonQuantum mechanical properties of the electron include an intrinsic angular momentum (spin) of a half-integer value in units of ħ, which means that it is a fermion. Being fermions, no two electrons can occupy the same quantum state, in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle. Electrons also have properties of both particles and waves, and so can collide with other particles and can be diffracted like light. Experiments with electrons best demonstrate this duality because electrons have a tiny mass.

The invariant mass of an electron is approximately 9.109×10−31 kilograms or 5.489×10−4 atomic mass units. On the basis of Einstein‘s principle of mass–energy equivalence, this mass corresponds to a rest energy of 0.511 MeV. The ratio between the mass of a proton and that of an electron is about 1836. Astronomical measurements show that the proton-to-electron mass ratio has held the same value for at least half the age of the universe, as is predicted by the Standard Model.

Electrons have an electric charge of −1.602×10−19 coulomb which is used as a standard unit of charge for subatomic particles, and is also called the elementary charge. This elementary charge has a relative standard uncertainty of 2.2×10−8. Within the limits of experimental accuracy, the electron charge is identical to the charge of a proton, but with the opposite sign. As the symbol e is used for the elementary charge, the electron is commonly symbolized by e−, where the minus sign indicates the negative charge. The positron is symbolized by e+ because it has the same properties as the electron but with a positive rather than negative charge.

The electron has an intrinsic angular momentum or spin of 12. This property is usually stated by referring to the electron as a spin-12 particle. For such particles the spin magnitude is   √ ³2 ħ. while the result of the measurement of a projection of the spin on any axis can only be ±ħ2. In addition to spin, the electron has an intrinsic magnetic moment along its spin axis. It is approximately equal to one Bohr magneton, which is a physical constant equal to 9.27400915(23)×10−24 joules per tesla. The orientation of the spin with respect to the momentum of the electron defines the property of elementary particles known as helicity.

The electron has no known substructure. Hence, it is defined or assumed to be a point particle with a point charge and no spatial extent. Observation of a single electron in a Penning trap shows the upper limit of the particle’s radius is 10−22 meters. There is a physical constant called the “classical electron radius“, with the much larger value of 2.8179×10−15 m. However, the terminology comes from a simplistic calculation that ignores the effects of quantum mechanics; in reality, the so-called classical electron radius has little to do with the true fundamental structure of the electron.

There are elementary particles that spontaneously decay into less massive particles. An example is the muon, which decays into an electron, a neutrino and an antineutrino, with a mean lifetime of 2.2×10−6 seconds. However, the electron is thought to be stable on theoretical grounds: the electron is the least massive particle with non-zero electric charge, so its decay would violate charge conservation. The experimental lower bound for the electron’s mean lifetime is 4.6×1026 years, at a 90% confidence level.

The observed physical manifestations of the electron are very much in line with the model. The numerical values need a check by estimation and calculation of the values of the properties known. That is available in a separate section.

Spin direction shows two senses of direction. Spin oscillations are not very well known, though they not excluded. MRI is tuned to enforce spin oscillations with subsequent registration of fall back behavior.

The assumption for the values of physical properties is that these are constants of nature. That gives further rise to the assumption that the Big Bang was a perfect manifestation of the start of our universe, based on total identical entities for photons and neutrinos and starting conditions for phenomena observed.

The assumption that the electric charge needs conservation under conditions of interference or decay, is not validated in The Dutch Paradigm. Whenever an electron decays, the “electric charge” will disappear.