Neutron/proton decay

The naked neutron decays in a proton

In the twin-dodecahedron model of The Dutch Paradigm an animation of the neutron oscillation is:


The naked neutron decays within minutes in a proton. In β-decay, the neutron ejects an electron and a neutrino.

A description of the β-decay process is:


In nuclear physicsbeta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus. For example, beta decay of a neutron transforms it into a proton by the emission of an electron, or conversely a proton is converted into a neutron by the emission of a positron (positron emission), thus changing the nuclide type. Neither the beta particle nor its associated neutrino exist within the nucleus prior to beta decay, but are created in the decay process. By this process, unstable atoms obtain a more stable ratio of protons to neutrons. The probability of a nuclide decaying due to beta and other forms of decay is determined by its nuclear binding energy. The binding energies of all existing nuclides form what is called the nuclear valley of stability. For either electron or positron emission to be energetically possible, the energy release (see below) or Q value must be positive.

Beta decay is a consequence of the weak force, which is characterized by relatively lengthy decay times. Nucleons are composed of up or down quarks, and the weak force allows a quark to change type by the exchange of a W boson and the creation of an electron/antineutrino or positron/neutrino pair. For example, a neutron, composed of two down quarks and an up quark, decays to a proton composed of a down quark and two up quarks. Decay times for many nuclides that are subject to beta decay can be thousands of years.

For the neutron, both dodecahedrons are in the same state of oscillation. In the model of The Dutch Paradigm, β-decay initiates when the state of oscillation of the twin dodecahedrons changes to the opposite mode relative to each other.

In illustration:


In the pre-phase two dodecahedrons collide to the neutron under ejection of one neutrino in the binding plane. The next phase is the β-decay. This β-decay initiates whenever one of the dodecahedrons start oscillating opposite to the other. This due to an external event of magnetic nature, as indicated for the change-over in chirality for the neutrino.

During the β-decay, there is ejection of an electron and a neutrino.

To illustrate, the β-decay in an animation:




The neutron modifies in β-decay in three faces to the proton. 



Face 1: Only a gamma photon is in orbit in this face.

The neutrino ejects at β-decay. Therefore there is only one gamma photon left in this face. The electric manifestation of this photon returns in the symmetric mode. The resulting spin on this face is 0.

Face 3: This face is empty.

During β-decay the electron in this face ejected. The resulting spin in this plane is 0, and there is no electric manifestation anymore.

Face 2: In this binding face is the proton bond.

There is 1 electron in that binding face and an additional gamma photon, which originates from the neutron bond.

The proton bond:

The proton bond makes the proton electrically active. Before β-decay, at an equal sense of oscillation of the two dodecahedrons, the neutron bond had two gamma photons, with their vectors pointing in an opposite direction and opposite sense of rotation. After β-decay, the two dodecahedrons oscillate in opposite sense. Therefore, the two gamma photons on the binding face are now pointing in the same direction, while still in opposite sense of direction. That means that one electron configuration will emerge. The second gamma photon continues its rotation but in a symmetric mode of the electric manifestation.

This electron of the proton bond locks in position as well and therefore cannot perform the spinor rotation.

With each oscillation, the cardioid of the neutrino in the proton bond will change chirality. It can well be that there is a preference of a gamma photon and neutrino to interfere in the same sense of rotation, with some transfer of free energy to magnetic energy and consequences for frequencies involved.

The proton system is extremely stable, with an average life expectancy of   ≥ 2.1*10²⁹ years.