INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY

The book “The Dutch Paradigm,” ISBN 978-90-829075-0-6, explains a new paradigm for modeling particle physics. It was published by The Dutch Paradigm Foundation in 2018 and reflects the content of the website http://thedutchparadigm.org/.

The Dutch Paradigm presents new models for elementary particles in the field of particle physics, which are based on logical deductions from human observations of events at the subatomic scale. It discusses the structural features of electrons, protons, and neutrons and provides further elaboration on nuclei and the process of atom formation.

New insights are presented, demonstrating how particle physics observations and measurements can be explained geometrically. This new paradigm provides far-reaching statements and conclusions, requiring further comprehension of the assumptions and postulates. The book contains arithmetic operations that demonstrate the consistency of the models. Following this book, further volumes on The Dutch Paradigm are released.

The Dutch Paradigm presents a novel approach to comprehending particle physics that offers insights into several so far unresolved issues in conventional particle physics. Unlike conventional particle physics, it does not view “mass” as a fundamental characteristic. Moreover, it provides a logical explanation for wave/particle behavior and does not consider electrical “charge” a fundamental property. Lastly, it challenges the assumption of the existence of anti-matter, which is deemed unnecessary.

Dark matter and energy sources are identified, and the four fundamental forces can be unified within the realm of the electromagnetic system. 

It is necessary to approach The Dutch Paradigm with an open mind to fully understand its ambitious claims and propositions.

An attempt is made in this memo to describe The Dutch Paradigm in general terms and in a compact manner. Animations are used, which are also available on the website http://thedutchparadigm.org/

THE BEGIN OF THE PHYSICAL UNIVERSE: THE BIG BANG

Around 13.5 billion years ago, an event occurred that allowed human beings to make sense of the world around them and live a conscious life. This event is commonly referred to as the Big Bang. Scientists assume that an enormous amount of energy was either created or released from an unknown source during this event. Nevertheless, the source of this energy and the reason behind the Big Bang is a mystery that only esotericism attempts to explain.

Following the Big Bang, there was rapid inflation and expansion of the universe. Despite being fundamental, the nature of space and time also remains an ontological mystery.

In order to understand the logic of events, researchers must accept certain yet unproven postulates, such as the origin of sudden bursts of energy from a condensed spatial unity or a singularity.

        According to the Dutch Paradigm, the Big Bang is believed to have originated from a singularity.

Time needs to be taken into account to comprehend the release of energy. All events after the Big Bang became part of causal relationships, including a connection to the situation before the Big Bang event. Still, reflections that involve time do not have relevance to the pre-Big Bang status. Our perception of time is based on our ability to understand what we directly and indirectly observe. We use logical thinking to identify causality in what we perceive through our senses. We objectify our observations and process them scientifically to establish predictable relationships.  Even so, there may be things that we cannot observe, which raises epistemological issues. Over time, the elementary particles and their interactions have been identified, and the present consensus is consolidated in the Standard Model of Elementary Particles and Interactions, as shown in Figure 1.

 Fig.1

The Standard Model identifies elementary or fundamental particles, which are point particles by definition. These particles are considered elementary as they are not made up of other particles and are believed to have no internal structure. Although they do not have any spatial extension, they possess properties that can be sensed by our senses.

          In contrast to the prevailing belief, The Dutch Paradigm proposes that only two elementary particles were released             during the Big Bang: photons and neutrinos. These particles are only discernible via their electromagnetic properties          and manifestations.

Each released particle is uniquely bound to electromagnetic manifestations and referred to as an entity.

According to the Dutch Paradigm, the fundamental properties, such as spin, electric charge, mass, and energy specified in the Standard Model, can be traced back to their electromagnetic origin. These properties are not considered fundamental but are derived from the electromagnetic system’s basic principles.

In the physical universe, every entity is associated with the electromagnetic phenomena. These electromagnetic phenomena are interdependent and create a causal system in itself. The electrical manifestation is offset by the magnetic manifestation, while the magnetic manifestation follows the electrical manifestation. Prior to the Big Bang, there were no time-sequential events, and the two electro and magnetic manifestations were assumed to be in perfect balance. They mutually compensated each other instantly in a latent balance but did not nullify each other relative to the outside world.

       The Dutch Paradigm suggests that the Big Bang was caused by a temporary disruption of the electromagnetic                       perfect balance.

It is assumed that the energy released during the Big Bang is the sum of the electrical manifestations of all the entities involved in the event that could not be compensated for during the interruption. This interruption is assumed to have lasted for one Planck period. After that one Planck time, the magnetic component of the system that caused the interruption has recovered its functionality. However, in the electromagnetic system of compensation, there is an ongoing backlog of one Planck period.

In the initial Planck period, which was not magnetically compensated, entities such as photons and neutrinos achieved the speed of light c by repelling one another through the Coulomb force. During this stage, these entities were not yet distinguishable as different types of entities.

The Dutch Paradigm suggests that when the ability for magnetic compensation returns, a part of magnetic compensation is permanently delayed, corresponding to the released electric energy during each entity’s escape from 1 Planck time.

This entity’s escape energy that was not compensated corresponds to the free electric quant.

                          hf

The formula can be written as h multiplied by f, where h is Planck’s constant and f represents frequency.

       The Dutch Paradigm suggests that the physical manifestation of a particle is represented by its escape energy.

       The Dutch Paradigm suggests that when an entity lags in magnetic compensation at light speed, it enters a non-                    quenching sinusoid wave for compensation following the quant of free electric energy.

This animation shows the Big Bang event, figure 2.

The animation is meant to provide a clear visual representation supporting the explanation.

The Big Bang can be divided into three periods, each pertaining to a unique entity.

  • The first period is characterized by electromagnetic manifestations in latent causality.

  • The second period is marked by the interruption of magnetic compensation.

  • Finally, the third period is characterized by the restart of magnetic compensation in a permanent backlog of 1 Planck time.

Fig. 2

During the third period of the Big Bang, the expansion rate of the universe reaches a point where it becomes stationary.

After reactivating magnetic compensation, photons and neutrinos are no longer under such initial Coulomb repulsion and do not accelerate further. The speed of light becomes their limit.

The entities’ electrical manifestations are balanced again by magnetic compensation but with the exception of free electric quant.

The Dutch Paradigm suggests that this fraction of electrical energy remains available for potential interference due to delayed magnetic compensation. This fraction of electric energy is for each entity represented by hf.

This capability is an anomaly and, thereby, breaks the symmetry of the electromagnetic system.

The phenomenon is the free electric quant of a photon or neutrino.

Due to the delay in the operation of the magnetic compensation system, the remaining free electric charge is subjected to a pattern in which the electric compensation is alternatively under and over-compensated. As shown in Figure 3 of the animation, the photon fluctuates, creating a wave with alternating positive and negative electric and magnetic manifestations.

 

Fig. 3 

Particle physics currently does not acknowledge such an irregularity and broken symmetry of the electromagnetic system. According to the prevailing theory, when an elementary particle, like a photon, travels through a quantum field, it emits energy. Figure 4 depicts the electromagnetic behavior of a photon over time.

fig. 4

According to this theory, energy is stored in fields, and when a photon passes through these fields at the speed of light, it causes the propagation of an electromagnetic wave. The fields are considered to be the medium through which a photon can manifest and travel. A specific field is assumed to be available for each particle in the Standard Model, which acts as a medium for electromagnetic manifestation.

It is regularly assumed that the energy from a photon’s electrical and magnetic aspects is symmetrical in its propagation direction. According to the Dutch Paradigm theory, this wave-like characteristic is created due to the 1 Planck period delay in the electromagnetic system, as illustrated in Figure 5.

 Fig. 5

In The Dutch Paradigm, the electromagnetic system is energetically tied to the individual entity

The nature of the electromagnetic system dictates to each entity the limit of the speed at which it can travel.

The perspective that the electromagnetic system is energetically connected to a specific object, as exemplified by the properties of the photon, contrasts with the view commonly held by particle physicists regarding the existence and function of quantum fields, as proposed by the quantum field theory.

The characteristic of the electromagnetic system of a photon is referred to as bipolar.

The concept of bipolarity can be confusing when it comes to photons.

         The “electric charge” connected to the photon during the Big Bang still exists. However, its manifestation has                           changed from a monopole to a dipole since then.

While photons have the same electric “charge” in the electromagnetic system, the direction of the force they exert (repulsive or attractive) alternates rapidly each time they pass through the propagation axis. Because of this rapid change in the direction of force, the single electrical and magnetic compensation acts similarly to a bipolar or dipole system. The system is electrically neutral in its exogenous behavior.

Due to its (quasi) bipolar nature, the photon now appears to be able to behave exclusively electrically and magnetically neutral to the environment. The mutual action of Coulomb forces between the entities can no longer accelerate the photon. The speed is restricted to the speed of light. There is an exception to this electrically neutral photon behavior due to the free electric quant, which makes it possible for a photon and a neutrino to interfere. The electrical energy of the free electric quant ultimately makes the entity perceptible and recognizable through the wave/particle behavior of the quant of free electrical energy. 

Neutrinos exhibit a preference for left-handed chirality, which is thought to be caused by the magnetic compensation that determines their left- or right-handedness.

THE PHOTON AND NEUTRINO PROPAGATE AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT AS FROM THE THIRD PERIOD

In the third period, an entity behaves like either a photon or a neutrino. Before the third period, the entity does not exhibit any properties related to mass or kinetic energy. Therefore, photons and neutrinos did not accumulate any kinetic energy during the second period. This is because the photon is considered “massless.”

The Dutch Paradigm assumes that both types of entities have been released under the same conditions and only differ in the nature of the electromagnetic system, linear versus circular.

In Figure 2, the electromagnetic system was studied at a frequency of approximately 10²⁴ Hz at the start. Further calculations revealed a more precise value of 1.54 x 10²³ Hz.

Figure 6 shows animations of the photon and neutrino from the direction of propagation.

Please note that the animation is for illustration purposes only and do not accurately represent the quantifications to scale.

   

 Fig 6 The neutrino and the photon       

It is commonly accepted that the fastest speed achievable within the observable universe is that of light. This raises the question of whether the speed of light is an absolute limit, or if it is determined by the constraints imposed by the electromagnetic systems of particles like photons and neutrinos.

It is currently not possible to answer this question. However, it is important to note that no objects that can exceed the speed of light have been observed. These observations are summarized in the Fine-structure constant, which is a dimensionless number that includes the values of the speed of light (c) and the Planck constant (h) in the equation denoted by α.

The Planck constant is a crucial quantity in physics and remains constant in all systems of units. The Dutch Paradigm recognizes this and accepts that the Planck constant, the speed of light (c), and the elementary “electrical charge” are all invariant. Nevertheless, the exact reason for the value of the Planck constant is still unknown.

BREAKING SYMMETRY, MODELING IN PHYSICS

The question of why the universe came into existence remains unanswered. However, it is widely accepted that it did originate and that we perceive entities, such as “point particles”, through their manifestations. We reject the philosophical position of solipsism, which suggests that nothing outside of our minds exists, and instead acknowledge the reality of objective perception. Both sensory perception and intellectual thinking are complex phenomena. Still, the philosophy of science provides a sufficient explanation for objective perception and scientific thought. When it comes to processing the Big Bang, we can nevertheless not ascertain its motive and meaning.

In the field of particle physics, it is observed that measurable entities display mathematically processable relationships through the manifestation of interference over time.

We use simplified representations of relationships called physical laws to help us comprehend the universe. These laws enable us to measure different physical phenomena that occur over time. However, our sensory perceptions limit the time frame of these phenomena. These laws of causality have been crucial in predicting macro-level experiences with increasing accuracy over two centuries. They have facilitated the development of unique machines and devices and served humanity in numerous ways.

In the field of particle physics, scientists seek to identify cause-and-effect relationships that can explain the workings of the microcosmic world. They do so by assuming that many factors are deterministic, which is a widely accepted assumption. 

However, this approach fails to consider the concept of life.

Symmetry plays a crucial role in modern fundamental physics. Whenever it is disrupted, physicists search for the missing part, even if it requires exploring the existence of virtual particles and forces. Quantum physics is not afraid to venture into the unknown realm of metaphysics, even for non-living phenomena.

Minor asymmetries can cause significant effects, highlighting the importance of observing how the deterministic part of the system responds to such deviations. For example, the Dutch Paradigm assumes a temporary discontinuation of magnetic compensation, which is a small deviation but has significant consequences. The electromagnetic system’s response to this deviation provides a means for humans to measure and quantify certain parameters.

Scientists studying particle physics have proposed numerous mathematical equations to understand the causal sequence of observations. Determining numerical values for the substructures of multiple particles is incredibly complex due to the interferences emanating from the electromagnetic manifestations of the participating entities. There are no precise models available at the moment to explain the spatial structure of composite objects such as neutrons and protons. According to the Standard Model, particles that make up these objects are reduced to point particles. Even the calculation of a single helium atomic model still remains a challenge. Despite their high complexity, we are able to make accurate and replicable predictions about the behavior of macroscopic constructs. This is largely due to the fact that we have models of these constructs at the macro level and can analyze them in detail using methods such as the finite element method (FEM). These classical laws are considered deterministic because the slight deviation in symmetry caused by temporary interruptions within one Planck period becomes insignificant when measuring values. However, on a larger scale, we can observe certain effects that suggest a break in symmetry, such as the gravitational lens effect.

In the previous animation, it was impossible to display the slight deviation in the phase shift within the electromagnetic system of the photon. Figure 7 dramatizes this deviation.

 Fig. 7

       Our sensory perception of a photon is the uncompensated part of its electrical manifestation, which is the free electric           quant.

LINKING CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

There is a fundamental difference between classical and quantum physics. While classical physics is entirely deterministic, quantum physics calls determinism into question.There is uncertainty about the nature of elementary particles, particularly when it comes to the wave/particle issue. When studying photons, it seems that their position in space is affected by the act of observation. This phenomenon was first described by Werner Heisenberg in 1925 as the uncertainty relationship between the spatial determination of a photon’s position and momentum. It is likely that the uncertainty arises from the assumption that the free quantity of electrical energy and the entity exist in the same location. This free electric quantity is responsible for interfering with other entities, leading to the development of constructs, and is also implicitly responsible for sensory perception.

According to The Dutch Paradigm, the behavior of the disturbance, under/overcompensation in the electromagnetic system, can be fully described, leaving no room for uncertainty within the system as per the naked eye. By correcting the hidden assumption of a coincidence in the entity’s position and the entity’s free electric quant, it becomes possible to establish a link between classical and quantum physics.

THE MASS MANIFESTATION OF THE NEUTRINO

Detecting neutrinos is a challenging task due to their elusive nature, even though scientists know they have a tiny mass. The origin of this mass, however, remains a mystery. The Dutch Paradigm provides a logical explanation.

The concept is that a neutrino exhibits circular behavior within its electromagnetic system.

Fig. 8

       Based on the insights of The Dutch Paradigm, a neutrino displays circular behavior within its electromagnetic system.

 

 

Fig.9

In comparison to a photon’s electromagnetic system, a neutrino’s electromagnetic system is purely monopolar.

At the start of the third period, nothing can propagate faster than the speed of light, including the spatial propagation of neutrinos and the circular velocity of their electromagnetic components.

The amplitude of the electromagnetic components can then be calculated according to

Where the amplitude is represented by r, the speed of light by c, and the start frequency by f.

Despite traveling at the same speed and having the same starting frequency during period 3, neutrinos and photons cannot maintain equality due to their different linear and rotational properties in the electromagnetic system. Due to the transcendence of π or the squaring of the circle issue, it’s impossible for these two speeds to be precisely the same. However, the quant free electrical energy present in a neutrino is equal to that of a photon and has a specific value.

                         E= hf

       According to the Dutch Paradigm, a small change in the speed limit of linear and circular motion can lead to the                      phenomenon of “mass” in a neutrino.

       When a neutrino moves in a straight line at the speed of light, its starting frequency is slightly reduced.

The reported mass range of a neutrino is 0.04 to 2.5 electron volts.

To put this in perspective, we can compare it to the electric energy of a photon in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, as shown in Figure 10.

Fig. 10

It can be inferred that the values fall within the range of 1.65 to 2.89 eV.

There is a discrepancy of about 3.5 x 10¹⁴ Hz in the initial frequency due to the tuning of the quadrature of circular frequency and the linear propagation speed of the neutrino.  The Dutch Paradigm explores the significant implications of this slight difference in starting frequency between the photon and neutrino, such as the manifestation of mass and the potential for visual perception of objects.

A photon without mass has a frequency of 1.54×10²³ Hz, while a neutrino with mass has a frequency of 1.54×10²³ – 3.5×10¹⁴ Hz.

Based on current understanding, the difference in question is referred to as mass.

       The Dutch Paradigm refers to the emergence of free or surplus magnetic energy from neutrinos.

Photons and neutrinos initially have the same frequency for their electromagnetic systems. However, the magnetic manifestation of neutrinos decreases, and as a result, a portion of it becomes free of the electrical manifestation of neutrinos. This portion is known as the “free magnetic quant” and operates within the neutrino monopole, according to The Dutch Paradigm.

The current way of thinking fails to acknowledge the origin of this significant emergence.

Consensus values for specified properties and metrics can validate or falsify construct calculations.

DETAILS OF THE MAGNETIC COMPENSATION OF THE NEUTRINO

The mass of both elementary and composite particles is determined by converting free electrical energy into surplus magnetic energy. These energies are derived from the electromagnetic system present in every entity. Upon initiation of the conversion process, a disturbance arises due to a delay of one Planck time in magnetic compensation, leading to such conversions.

The two systems can be represented graphically, as shown in the figures mentioned earlier.

The wave path that the electromagnetic system of a neutrino follows is known as a limaçon from Pascal.

A limaçon completes a full rotation of 2 * 2π while traversing a rotating sinusoidal wave.

This is shown graphically in Fig. 11:

 Fig. 11

In the simplified animations depicting the neutrino, it may seem that there is a constant direction of rotation. However, a full limaçon is not biased towards either right or left-handed rotational spin. The neutrino is anticipated to alter its spin every time it passes through the central zero point of its entity.

The neutrino’s electromagnetic system is expected to exhibit a mixed picture of alternating left- and right-handed rotation. By reversing the direction of rotation at each zero passage, the neutrino then appears to exhibit a persistent quasi-bipolar effect in spin rotation behavior, similar to that of a photon.

      Such a high-frequency behavior in chirality is not observed with neutrinos. The neutrinos have a persistent                              preference for left-handed chirality.

This phenomenon can be explained by the delayed magnetic compensation effects. When the free electric quantum is at its zero point, the direction of rotation of the limaçon cannot change in time because the magnetic compensation lags behind. One Planck time later, the magnetic compensation passes through the zero point, and only then does it compensate for the free electric quantum that occurred one Planck time earlier.

This phenomenon can be explained by delayed magnetic compensation effects. When the free electric quant is at its zero point, the direction of rotation of the limaçon cannot change in time since the magnetic compensation lags behind. After another Planck time, the magnetic compensation passes through the zero point, and only then can it begin compensating for the free electric quant that occurred one Planck time earlier. Meanwhile, the sinusoidal wave initiated by the free electric quant continues to unwind in the same direction at a frequency of approximately 10²³ Hz. This phenomenon is often referred to as a left-handed chirality with a spin of 1/2.

The electromagnetic system’s lack of electromagnetic neutrality results in permanent monopolar spin effects on the environment.

       For a naked neutrino, it is to be expected that there is a fixed direction of rotation.

It is essential to consider if there is a preferred direction of rotation in neutrino observations. Interestingly, there is. When a neutrino is in its naked state, the electromagnetic system favors anti-clockwise rotation, also known as left-handed chirality. This phenomenon is not yet well understood under the current paradigm and is considered a misinterpreted violation of the universe’s first symmetry principle. It is known that the direction of rotation of a neutrino can change to right-handed chirality, which is expected in the models of The Dutch Paradigm. This change does not affect the monopolar characteristic of the neutrino’s electromagnetic system, as explained previously.

The animation in Figure 12 is referred to as a “spinor” because it triggers the spinor oscillation in the naked electron.

The Dutch Paradigm’s website showcases an animation demonstrating the influence of magnetic compensation lag in Fig. 12. 

 Fig. 12

The reduced frequency in neutrinos is also observed in calculating the manifestation of electrons, neutrons, and protons. The formation of electrons and the dodecahedrons for neutrons and protons reduces the frequency of the manifestation of entities involved in the interference.

The question is, what is the root cause of this phenomenon?

This phenomenon is referred to as the ‘mass’ manifestation. It occurs when a reduction in frequency shifts free electrical energy to free magnetic energy.

THE ORIGIN OF THE ELECTRON

Based on the Dutch Paradigm, the electron is not considered a fundamental particle. Rather, it is believed to be formed by the combination of a gamma photon and a gamma neutrino. This combination results in the electron possessing certain characteristics, such as electric charge, spin, mass, and spinor functionality. These characteristics emerge due to the interaction between the electromagnetic systems of two particles and the interference pattern that results from it.

When a gamma photon’s free electrical quant comes across a magnetic manifestation created by a neutrino, interference occurs. This interference generates a force that affects the electromagnetic systems of both the photon and the neutrino. Consequently, the photon, which has no mass, is tilted 90 degrees and starts to orbit around the neutrino in a circular path. The photon’s and the neutrino’s magnetic fields link together, causing mutual constructive interference that leads to an asymmetry in the photon’s electrical charge.

       The reason we use the term ‘electrical charge’ is due to this imbalance or asymmetry.

See for this Figure 13 in animation.

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 Fig. 13

The electrical component of a neutrino goes through a periodic reversal of direction in the rotation of the limaçon, occurring at a frequency of approximately 3.5×10¹⁴ Hz. This reversal is initiated by the timely addition of magnetic compensation by the photon, which triggers the free electric quant of the neutrino to change the direction of rotation. This phenomenon is similar to the reversal of the left-to-right-handed chirality of a neutrino when it is exposed to the Earth’s magnetic field.

This causes the electron to oscillate between two states of being, as indicated in Fig. 14.

 Fig. 14

The Dutch Paradigm states that an electron can display a spinor behavior by rotating around one of its linear axes when in the presence of another electron. Existing models of particle physics do not explain this phenomenon.When an electron orbits around a nucleus, it undergoes a specific type of rotation. As the electron oscillates, it undergoes a spinor rotation to remain attracted to the atom’s nucleus. This is usually understood as two elementary particles: the electron and positron. The positron being the anti-particle of the electron.

When attempting to locate the position of a single quant within an electron using traditional methods, the observations are nearly unpredictable. As a result, the electron is typically represented as a “cloud” in a traditional model.

Figure 15.

Fig 15.

Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle plays a dominant role here. According to the insights presented in The Dutch Paradigm, there is a fully geometric and deterministic resolution to interferences.

The electron displays an asymmetrical electrical manifestation which undergoes additional rotation around an axis because of the spinor functionality. This frequency of approximately 3.5 x 10¹⁴ Hz causes the electron to rotate, creating a quasi-isotropic electric manifestation. Regularly, this is interpreted as a fundamental property of the electron, its “electric charge.”

KINETIC REST SPEED

Mass or mass manifestation can only occur at the beginning of the third period when magnetic compensation is restored. In this early stage, photons and neutrinos have reached the speed of light due to Coulomb repulsion in the direction of propagation. However, they have not obtained any kinetic energy yet.

The photon and neutrino have a kinetic resting speed relative to the source of the Big Bang equal to the speed of light.

This definition of kinetic rest speed refers to the speed at which an entity or construct propagates with no kinetic energy incorporated into its electromagnetic manifestations.

Based on the Dutch Paradigm, a gamma photon and a gamma neutrino can form an electron.

When an electron is formed, the electric vector of the photon aligns with the direction of the electron’s motion. Consequently, the electron has to reduce its speed to the kinetic rest speed to avoid exceeding the speed of light. The frequency of the electron’s free electric quantum is adjusted accordingly.

The difference between the original and reduced frequency is known as Δf. The energy equivalent of Δhf is transferred to free magnetic quants in the electron’s constituents, giving the electron a “mass” of about 0.511 eV/c². As a result, the kinetic rest speed of the electron is reduced.

          Moreover, 12 electrons can fuse together to form a dodecahedron, and two dodecahedrons can unite to create either a proton or a neutron.

         The arrangement of 12 electrons on a dodecahedron’s faces determines the structure’s propagation rate. 

The next step in which 12 electrons form a dodecahedron, represents perfection emerging from chaos. This is illustrated in Figure 16.

Fig. 16

The photons and neutrinos of the 12 electrons experience an increase in wavelength proportionally to Δf as they become stationary relative to their point of origin, the Big Bang.

Consequently, the dodecahedron goes through a process of spatial inflation, as shown in Figure 16. The effect of spatial inflation is relatively modest and exaggerated in the animation. 

A dodecahedron is a polyhedron with twelve faces, each of which contains an electron. The twelve electrons of each dodecahedron enclose empty space

NEUTRON/PROTON 

Two dodecahedrons can combine to form a neutron. However, this process can only occur when two electrons on the binding face are broken by the ejection of one neutrino, as dictated by the Pauli Exclusion principle. Refer to figure 17 for more information.

fig. 17

The neutron oscillates in sync over the two constituent dodecahedrons, but that can change when one of the two dodecahedrons is disturbed by interference and starts oscillating in the opposite mode. This is the process that is recognized as ß-decay. 

The resulting construct is the proton, fig 18.

The neutron has a measured radius of 0,895 fm. This radius geometrically determines the wavelength of gamma photons on a face or plane of the twin dodecahedron structure. The estimated size of the twin dodecahedron structure is 2*0,895=1.79 femtometers. The wavelength of the standing wave of the gamma photon is equal to the perimeter of one face of a dodecahedron, which is approximately 2 femtometers.

The frequency of a photon is determined by its wavelength, which can be calculated using the formula f = v/λ. If the wavelength on the surface of a dodecahedron is 2 x 10ˉ¹⁵   meters, and the speed of light is 3 x 10⁸ meters per second, then the frequency of a photon without any surrounding medium is 1.5 x 10²³ Hz.

Inside the electrons of the neutron, photons interfere with gamma neutrinos. The neutron has a mass reported as 939 MeV/c². This energy of free electric quants converts into additional magnetic compensation.

The available energy in the free electric quanta for further interactions can be calculated by subtracting the converted energy into free magnetic quanta.

E=hf    being   E=4,135.10⁻¹⁵.1,5.10²³=6,20.10⁸ eV=620 MeV, related to the constituents of 24 game photons and 23 gamma neutrinos.

So, the reduction in free energy per single entity of 47 is 939,6/47=19,6 MeV. Therefore,  we estimate the original starting frequency as per period 3 to be approximately proportional higher with a factor of (620+ 19,6)/620= 1,03.

       That makes a start frequency of 1,54.10²³ Hz.

FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS

The book “The Dutch Paradigm: A New Thinking for Modeling Particle Physics” presents a unique perspective on particle physics modeling and was published in 2018.

To truly understand the world, we need to keep an open mind and consider different viewpoints. By removing obstacles that prevent us from discussing our current theoretical framework, we can expand our knowledge and gain a deeper insight into our observations. This new perspective allows us to uncover hidden meanings and discover new ideas that were previously unknown. Therefore, let us welcome the potential of a new perspective to achieve a better understanding of the world.

Academics from different disciplines who are interested can visit the website http://thedutchparadigm.org/ to access the book and its resources.

More volumes on this topic are published, providing a deeper understanding of the new paradigm’s differences from traditional thinking. 

The series on The Dutch Paradigm is now available in four volumes under My books.