Thermal expansion

Thermal expansion is a well-known phenomenon.

It is the macrocosmic phenomenon of a body to expand or contract in volume to a change in temperature through heat transfer.


Temperature is a monotonic function of the average molecular kinetic energy of a substance. When a substance is heated, the kinetic energy of its molecules increases. Thus, the molecules begin moving more and usually maintain a greater average separation. Materials which contract with increasing temperature are unusual; this effect is limited in size, and only occurs within limited temperature ranges (see examples below). The degree of expansion divided by the change in temperature is called the material’s coefficient of thermal expansion and generally varies with temperature.

The regular assumption is that temperature is a measure of the kinetic energy of molecules. In this view, the molecules itself do not change in size. They are merely vibrating in all directions and by doing so expand trough heating. This model is not easy to understand. The ambient temperature is direction insensitive, and therefore, the vibrations have to be direction insensitive as well. Therefore, for understanding, it is likely that the prevailing paradigm hints to a spherical pulsation of the molecules.

This description is tuned to the behavior of molecules and needs interpretation to the level of atoms. Are the atoms and the nuclei as well having the same type of spherical vibration?

The Dutch Paradigm triggers another model to understand the thermal expansion.

In the illustration we have:




In the lower region of the temperature scale, we have the solid, liquid and gaseous phase. At higher temperatures, the electrons in the outer shell dissociate from the nucleus. The Coulomb binding gets broken. The atoms are ionized and apart from some elements low in the Periodic Table still do have an electron shell.

The next phases will show that eventually more electrons will be released out of their Coulomb barrier.

The fact that also electrons dissociate by breaking their Coulomb barrier means that they have absorbed energy. The source for this absorbed energy is interference with photons with free electric energy at a certain level of frequency.

The idea of the prevailing paradigm of the vibrating molecules and atoms does not predict this behavior.

It is as if at the various temperature levels, the molecules and atoms are submerged in an environment filled with photons that can be absorbed by the gamma photons in the constructs. Gamma photons in the electrons as well as in the dodecahedrons of the nucleus. Such absorption is by photon/photon interference. A visiting photon interferes constructively with the gamma photon in orbit in an electron, being in the shell or bound in the nucleus. Instead of an incidental passage of a photon with subsequent emission or reflection, the constructs in an atom are in environmental equilibrium with photons of different frequency as relevant for the ambient temperature. These photons are indeed visitors because there is a short passage only and a short effect of interference. The visiting photon can easily dissociate from the gamma photon and return to the environment for a next encounter. It is similar to our ability to observe objects. Sensorial observation requires a constant flow of photons in the frequency bandwidth of the visible light to and from the objects. The environment is enlightened with photons, provided there is a source that gives an ample supply of those appropriate photons.

What we observe is visible proof of the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

When the source stops emitting the appropriate photons, then through the ongoing random dissipation of the emitted photons the objects become invisible again.   

The same process of dissipation occurs with photons at every level of frequency.

Therefore, whenever we refer to something as naked, like the naked photon, naked electron, and the naked proton, then we describe a situation that is simply not achievable, not realistic in the physical reality.  It would mean that all these environmental impacts with photons would not be there, so it describes these constructs at zero K

We measure physical phenomena at ambient temperatures, and therefore we will always be confronted with additional photons that are interfering with more specific the gamma photons in the constructs.