In the chapter on The Electron, the question was:
For what reasons is an electron identified as a fundamental particle?
An obvious answer is: because we cannot reduce an electron in other fundamental particles.
Even, so, then there is still the question: even if it is impossible to reduce an electron,
why is it assumed to be a point particle?
For the answer to this question, we have to go back to the years in which the debate on this question was under discussion within the scientific community.
In these years, around 1900, Henry Poincaré raised the issue that if an electron would have a spatial extension with some matter, then it would risk to explode due to the dispersed electric charge. This electric charge was assumed to be isotropic.
As per illustration:
Poincaré suggested that counteractive forces are required to keep the electron within its geometric form, suggested as being a ball shape.
Hendrik Lorentz questioned a ball shape for the electron. An electron could accelerate up to relativistic speed and deforms in the direction of the speed, as illustrated below:
There is no doubt that the electron is very important in understanding Particle Physics, but there was at that time apparently no better way than to assume that the electron is a point particle with no spatial extension. If so, then both problems would become irrelevant.
Though this is a possible outcome, it still looks like finding a solution to a problem not well understood. Also, Albert Einstein, who participated in accepting this “solution” was puzzled with the electron all through his life. At the end of his life, Einstein still could not understand the mechanism of the energy exchange of light between electrons. In his words: “ I would like to know what an electron is.”
There have been numerous suggestions given to find another answer to the questions raised by Poincaré and Lorentz, but none have changed the outcome up till now, that assuming the electron as a fundamental point particle is still the best answer.
The Dutch Paradigm will provide an answer to address this issue by questioning the basic underlying assumptions that trigger the problems as stated.
The answer is that the electron is a construct of a photon and a neutrino, which can interfere at gamma frequency into an electron. This interference is possible due to the particle/wave duality of both the photon and the neutrino.
We, therefore, need a better understanding of this particle/wave duality, to start with a photon as a result of the way the universe started.