Nucleus

The test for the building for more complex baryons was by linking protons and neutron into a chain.

The nucleus of Deuterium:

 

protonneutronmerger11

It gave the first indication of the applicability of the method of addition and subtraction of the contribution in spin and electric vector of the several binding and compounded faces to an overall assessment of the specific nucleus.

The next check was about the nucleus of Tritium:

 

protonneutromerger12

 

subsequent for the nucleus of Helium-4:

protonneutronmerger15

 

The conclusion was that this is a potentially powerful way of building a model for the nuclei. It is in line with expectations for the electric and spin manifestations for these nuclei.

However, there are remarks to be made:

  1. It is highly unlikely that nuclei will build up as a kind of a stick
  2. It is becoming unclear to what constituent a specific dodecahedron is to be allocated

 

We have to rethink the building principles to address issue 1. Issue 2 is not a problem; it only gives additional possibilities to make more complex constructs.

We have to consider that dodecahedrons have 12 faces. The β-decay induced a specific rearrangement in which twin dodecahedrons became available with four specific types of individual face composition:

  1. An electron
  2. An electron with an additional gluon
  3. A gluon
  4. Empty

We also know that all dodecahedrons are oscillating in full synchronization, provided they have a speed ˃ 0. The chapter on inertia clarifies this provision.

To allow for a more spatial balanced build-up of the nuclei, we consider stacking methods as the close-packing of equal spheres. The assumption that the dodecahedrons arrange in a hexagonal close-packing makes sense.

The Hexagonal close-packing for dodecahedrons requires some spatial adjustment to make a perfect fit.

An example of a configuration in close-packing for dodecahedrons is in this 3D print:

 

3dprintdodecahedron

The hexagonal close sphere packing gives the highest packing for balls, with a kissing factor of 12 for each ball. That is in line with the number of faces of a dodecahedron.  There is a lot of theory available regarding close-packing, linked to building crystals and foam bubbles (Weaire-Phelan structure). Therefore, the mathematics for such structures is well known.

euclides

The electric vectors of these proton bonds per axis must point in the same direction to be neutral to the outside world. They are allowed to be configured parallel to one of the three axes of the Euclidean system.

As long as we keep symmetry for all opposite faces – excluded the proton bonds – this will be very helpful to construct the more complex nuclei.

The remainder of the dodecahedron functionality has two basic functions:

  1. To allow building up parallel faces in three axes for the proton bounds to be stacked
  2. To “glue” the dodecahedrons together

 

The second issue requires several mixes of possible faces on single dodecahedrons.

The adjacent faces of the kissing dodecahedrons can be modified based on the indicated available combinations:

  1. An electron
  2. An electron with an additional gluon
  3. A gluon
  4. Empty

 

These modifications require as prerequisite external electrical neutrality. It is quite an amount of work to prepare for all the elements in the Periodic Table, but this is doable and allows developing an algorithm.

The choices made for this build-up require additional gluons, neutrinos and the like, but that will in essence not have a major impact on the mass manifestation of the nucleus.

To compare the impact of a proton bond:

Neutron  :             939.565378(21) MeV/c2

Proton     :            938.272046(21) MeV/c2[

 

As can be seen, there is no significant impact when proton and neutron bonds are added. Additional gluons and neutrinos are not a problem as well. We only have to be a bit more modest with electrons.

It is quite feasible that these building principles for the nuclei are the major drivers for the more complex nuclei.

 

 

The electric vectors of these proton bonds per axis must point in the same