Absolute zero Kelvin

Thermal expansion is linear. That feature is used as an objective measure for levels of thermal comfort for humans.

The thermal expansion plotted in an XY graph, extrapolates to zero expansion. The related temperature became the absolute zero on the scale of Kelvin. In the scale of Celsius, this is  – 273.15° C. That extrapolation is apparently acceptable in the temperature range in which we live. When the temperature increases beyond our thermal comfort level, we see all kind of other phenomena, as illustrated in this figure:



It is extremely difficult to cool matter down to absolute zero. That is counterintuitive because as human beings, we experience cooling down like a normal phenomenon, for which we have to protect ourselves by wearing cloth and use heating.

Regular science assumes that at 0⁰ K all molecular motion comes to a halt. Molecular motion defines as the vibration of the total atomic system relative to its environment.


Absolute zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reaches its minimum value, taken as 0. The theoretical temperature is determined by extrapolating the ideal gas law; by international agreement, absolute zero is taken as −273.15° on the Celsius scale (International System of Units),[1][2] which equates to −459.67° on the Fahrenheit scale (United States customary units).[3] The corresponding Kelvin and Rankine temperature scales set their zero points at absolute zero by definition.

It is commonly thought of as the lowest temperature possible, but it is not the lowest enthalpy state possible, because all real substances begin to depart from the ideal gas when cooled as they approach the change of state to liquid, and then to solid; and the sum of the enthalpy of vaporization (gas to liquid) and enthalpy of fusion (liquid to solid) exceeds the ideal gas’s change in enthalpy to absolute zero. In the quantum-mechanical description, matter (solid) at absolute zero is in its ground state, the point of lowest internal energy.

The laws of thermodynamics dictate that absolute zero cannot be reached using only thermodynamic means, as the temperature of the substance being cooled approaches the temperature of the cooling agent asymptotically. A system at absolute zero still possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy, the energy of its ground state at absolute zero. The kinetic energy of the ground state cannot be removed.

Scientists have achieved temperatures extremely close to absolute zero, where matter exhibits quantum effects such as superconductivity and superfluidity.

An additional assumption is that at 0⁰ K none of the basic properties of the atom and its constituents altered fatally. Whenever the temperature goes up again, the atoms will resume their presence in the condition and behavior as is specific for a certain temperature.

It is therefore likely to assume also in regular science, that temperature is related to an external impact on the atom that is relatively easy to reverse. The idea has been for a long time that the atom or molecule is vibrating as a total system, equally in all three axes. There are quite a number of these mechanical theories, and there is no final scientific verdict for acceptance or rejection. Nevertheless, it is unclear how the vibrating molecules absorb and emit their “kinetic” energy.

In The Dutch Paradigm, the thermal expansion defines as the exchange of photons between the environment and the objects in that environment. At 0⁰ K there are no photons available for exchange anymore, while nothing has changed in the structure and constituents of the constructs