# Waves and fields

Waves and fields play a dominant role in explaining particle interference behavior.

To understand the present logic regarding electromagnetic radiation, we can use again Wikipedia as a source for information.

Wikipedia:

In physicselectromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy. It includes radio wavesmicrowavesinfrared(visible) lightultravioletX-rays, and gamma rays.

Electromagnetic waves are produced whenever charged particles are accelerated, and these waves can subsequently interact with any charged particles. EM waves carry energymomentum and angular momentum away from their source particle and can impart those quantities to matter with which they interact. Quanta of EM waves are called photons, which are massless, but they are still affected by gravity. Electromagnetic radiation is associated with those EM waves that are free to propagate themselves (“radiate”) without the continuing influence of the moving charges that produced them, because they have achieved sufficient distance from those charges. Thus, EMR is sometimes referred to as the far field. In this jargon, the near field refers to EM fields near the charges and current that directly produced them, as (for example) with simple magnets, electromagnetic induction and static electricity phenomena.

The electromagnetic waves that compose electromagnetic radiation can be imagined as a self-propagating transverse oscillating wave of electric and magnetic fields. This diagram shows a plane linearly polarized EMR wave propagating from left to right. The electric field is in a vertical plane and the magnetic field in a horizontal plane. The electric and magnetic fields in EMR waves are always in phase and at 90 degrees to each other.

“Electromagnetic waves are well known as produced whenever charged  particles are accelerated, and these waves can subsequently interfere with other electrically charged particles.” That statement needs clarification because waves do not interfere with charged particles, but the wavelike electromagnetic manifestations of charged particles will do. Even so, it is also a  macrocosmic description of a phenomenon. We can induce movements of such charged particles and calculate the response in the interaction towards the other charged particles. For charged particles in large objects, this is used extensively for the technical design of electric appliances.

Electromagnetic waves in free space follow Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave equations.

The assumption is that the electromagnetic radiation for a photon can also be modeled as a wave. That wave shows the fluctuation in electromagnetic interference potential of a photon along the axis of propagation. This wave-like interference potential represents both the electrical and the magnetical manifestation. The photon itself is only at one point. Therefore this propagation pattern is, in fact, a nonrelativistic historical representation of the electromagnetic interference potential. The electromagnetic manifestations of the photon are assumed to be synchronous both in frequency and in phase, but there is no interference known of these electromagnetic manifestations with other charged particles. A photon does not exhibit mass behavior as observed with fermions as well. Each photon though has a quant of energy hf, a package of energy, whatever that is. This quant is not part of the wave model.

Once a photon is released from a source, it propagates without further influence from its source. The general assumption is a photon can be “captured” and “released” by an electron orbiting an atomic nucleus under exchange of part of the energy of the quant.

The nature of electromagnetic waves has been the subject of intense scientific debate, all to understand and model this particle-wave duality.

It is obvious that there are still various mysteries hidden in this particle-wave duality.

In The Dutch Paradigm, the explanation and modeling of the particle-wave duality are at the core of this new paradigm. The perceived particle-wave duality is a logical consequence of the second period of the Big Bang.

As accepted by regular science and The Dutch Paradigm as well, the photon has electromagnetic manifestations, and it is – with some possible restrictions – not influenced by electric and magnetic fields, whether it be near or far-fields. As will be explained within the new paradigm, the quant energy of a photon can interfere with a neutrino to form the electron. That is in violation of the Standard Model, which declares an electron as a fundamental point particle.

As human beings, we have developed technical solutions to produce near- and far- electromagnetic fields by applying forces to electrically charged particles like electrons and protons. The near-fields enable us to produce electricity and the far-fields enable us to produce a stream of photons in random waveforms between an emitter and a receiver.

The propagation of photons through space in a vacuum is at a constant velocity, called the speed of light. This speed is a natural constant with a numerical value in SI units of:

C = 299,792,458 metres per second

This speed is in vacuum an absolute constant because even the slightest deviation from it would blur the pictures of stars and galaxies as we can see in the sky.

The description for electromagnetic field is in Wikipedia:

Wikipedia:

An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects. It affects the behaviour of charged objects in the vicinity of the field. The electromagnetic field extends indefinitely throughout space and describes the electromagnetic interaction. It is one of the four fundamental forces of nature (the others are gravitationweak interaction and strong interaction).

The field can be viewed as the combination of an electric field and a magnetic field. The electric field is produced by stationary charges, and the magnetic field by moving charges (currents); these two are often described as the sources of the field. The way in which charges and currents interact with the electromagnetic field is described by Maxwell’s equations and the Lorentz force law.

From a classical perspective in the history of electromagnetism, the electromagnetic field can be regarded as a smooth, continuous field, propagated in a wavelike manner; whereas from the perspective of quantum field theory, the field is seen as quantized, being composed of individual particles.

The field model represents the electromagnetic interactions between objects, whereby through the enormous amount of participating particles, the interference potentials are adding up to show an almost physical existence.